The Last Passengers

A hundred years ago today Martha died. She was a passenger pigeon and the last of her kind, the final living specimen of a race of birds once so numerous that their flocks would black out the sky for hours on end.

(And commemorating her, here are my photographs of zoo enclosures without animals.)

Zoo #1. No Hummingbirds

Zoo #1. No Hummingbirds

Extinction is natural. Species go extinct every day. But few species go extinct with such catastrophic vehemence as did the passenger pigeons.

When the Europeans arrived in the new world, there were billions of them – but not evenly distributed. No, they traversed the continent in a few enormous flocks. One flock observed in Canada in 1866 was said to count 3.5 billion birds. That one flock would have been 1.5 kilometres wide and over 500 kilometres long. And it would have darkened the sky for 14 hours or so. But even at that point the species had been in steady decline for over half a century. The decline was slow at first, but from 1870 to 1890 it was catastrophic.

Zoo #2. No Painted Terrapins, Narrow-headed Softshell Turtles, Malaysian Giant Turtles or Johnston's Crocodiles

Zoo #2. No Painted Terrapins, Narrow-headed Softshell Turtles, Malaysian Giant Turtles or Johnston’s Crocodiles

Their numbers meant they were easily hunted. One double barrel blast of a shotgun could net even an amateur 60 birds. When pigeon meat was commercialised as cheap food for the poor, hunting became a massive and mechanised effort. Birds by the tens of millions were killed in the Midwest and shipped east on trains.

Zoo #3. No Black Mangabeys

Zoo #3. No Black Mangabeys

Combined with habitat loss as European settlers hellbent on manifest destiny deforested vast areas of land, the birds who only laid one egg at a time couldn’t make it. In March 1900, an Ohio-boy names Press Clay Southworth killed a bird with a BB gun. That bird was the last recorded wild passenger pigeon. A few still survived in captivity. But on September 1, 1914, the very last died at the Cincinnati Zoo.

Here’s to Martha.

These photographs are from San Diego Zoo, carefully framed not to show the animals.

Zoo #4. No Tigers

Zoo #4. No Tigers

Zoo #5. No Allen's Swamp Monkeys or African Spot-necked Otters

Zoo #5. No Allen’s Swamp Monkeys or African Spot-necked Otters

Zoo #6. No Visayan Warty Pigs

Zoo #6. No Visayan Warty Pigs

Zoo #7. No Giant Pandas

Zoo #7. No Giant Pandas

Zoo #8. No Pronghorns

Zoo #8. No Pronghorns

Zoo #9. No Klipspringers

Zoo #9. No Klipspringers

Zoo #10. No Red Kangaroos

Zoo #10. No Red Kangaroos

Zoo #11. No Clouded Leopards

Zoo #11. No Clouded Leopards

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