Stone-Faced

Portraits of dead Russians.

Stone-face #01: Vova Borkov

Stone-face #01: Vova Borkov

“For centuries, everyday existence in Russia was a strenuous battle for survival; the life of the common Russian was grueling, and worry became entrenched on their face as a permanent reflection of their hardship.”

– From the WikiHow-article “How to Understand a Russian Smile

Stone-face #02: Petr Dmitrievich Govorunenko

Stone-face #02: Petr Dmitrievich Govorunenko

Russians do supposedly smile – just not at strangers. Spending a vacation week in Moscow recently, that ocean of faces void of any emotion made me want to make a series of stony-faced Russian portraits. Seeing that there really wasn’t time for it – and that I don’t speak much Russian either – I choose not to, but turned instead to a different set of stone faces: those of proper stone.

These are photographs from the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.

Novodevichy Cemetery #01

Novodevichy Cemetery #01

Stone-face #03: Daria Zinovievna Koroleva

Stone-face #03: Daria Zinovievna Koroleva

Novodevichy Cemetery #02

Novodevichy Cemetery #02

Stone-face #04: Alexandr Ivanovič Kudrjašov

Stone-face #04: Alexandr Ivanovič Kudrjašov

Novodevichy Cemetery #03

Novodevichy Cemetery #03

Stone-face #05: Nicanor Dmitrievich Zahvataev

Stone-face #05: Nicanor Dmitrievich Zahvataev

Novodevichy Cemetery #04

Novodevichy Cemetery #04

Stone-face #06: Petrova Eustolia D. Gagarin

Stone-face #06: Petrova Eustolia D. Gagarin

Stone-face #07: Aleksei Ivanovich Radzievskii

Stone-face #07: Aleksei Ivanovich Radzievskii

Novodevichy Cemetery #05

Novodevichy Cemetery #05

Stone-face #08: Gleb Nikanorovich Cherdantsev

Stone-face #08: Gleb Nikanorovich Cherdantsev

Novodevichy Cemetery #06

Novodevichy Cemetery #06

Stone-face #09: Vladimir Leonidovich Govorov

Stone-face #09: Vladimir Leonidovich Govorov

Novodevichy Cemetery #07

Novodevichy Cemetery #07

Stone-face #10: Filipp Ivanovich Golikov

Stone-face #10: Filipp Ivanovich Golikov

Novodevichy Cemetery #08

Novodevichy Cemetery #08

Easter Photographs, Off-Season

Pics from a drive through Western Norway some six months ago, forgotten until I got stung by a wasp yesterday (which in late September is kind of an off-season event. The off-season-ness is the key here. It’s not that arbitrary. Really).

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CAUTION! Statue may be HOT!

Caution! Danger! Stop! Keep off! Do! Don’t! Warning: this blog post may contain words and pictures.

Signs #1

Signs #1

It’s the little things. Travelling the US, there are of course quite a few things that sets the country apart from the one you call home. Like the fondness for melted cheese, Jesus and fireworks, for example. Or that strange belief in guns.

But when asked what’s really different in the US, I think of the little things. Like why are all shower heads wall-mounted and not fitted with a hose? And how come it’s so hard to get a small coffee? (12oz is a third of a litre and in no reasonable understanding of the word a small portion.)

And then – of course – you have that tendency of micromanaging banalities – that overwhelming abundance of useless signs.

Signs #2

Signs #2

Don’t get me wrong. I do appreciate a good sign. When my girlfriend and my GPS are having one of their usual arguments, I very much appreciate an easy-to-read sign telling me the directions to where we’re supposed to be going. Or a proper warning sign, warning me of dangers I’d otherwise be ignorant of. Yup, they’re good. So sure, a useful sign is useful, no surprise there.

But oh so many aren’t.

Signs #3

Signs #3. Forehead sticker: “Do not feed me anything”

Signs #4

Signs #4. Nature – closed

Signs #5

Signs #5. Also eagles and attitude

Signs #6

Signs #6. Pets – don’t let them poo in the desert

Signs #7

Signs #7. Vast lands, suggested parking

Signs #8

Signs #8. Ram. Better dodge it

Signs #9

Signs #9. Nature – still closed

Signs #10

Signs #10. Don’t spoil the neighborhood

Signs #11

Signs #11. No officer, I’m just walking my rod

Signs #12

Signs #12. Some light tap-dancing might be okay, though

Signs #13

Signs #13. Better petkeeping through arbitrary rules

Signs #14

Signs #14. Et cetera

Signs #15

Signs #15. You’re welcome

 

Desert

noun \ˈde-zərt\ a barren area of land with little precipitation, hostile living conditions and lots of casinos.

Desert #1

Desert #1

This was the second year in the row we spent one month in the US. Last year was sort of a trial run. We did the East coast. And the Midwest. The South. And, yes, a bit of Canada. One lesson learned: driving 5,000 miles on the Interstates in a big SUV is boring. Also: plans are bad. I started this piece of writing while we were waiting for our laundry in a laundromat in Fort Bragg, North California. Where we were going that evening, we didn’t know, except that we should probably end up somewhere in the Bay area. That was our modus operandi for over four weeks. We arrived in LA knowing we would pick up a rental car for a month, that we should avoid the Interstates at all cost and – that’s basically it. Chance, coincidences, would bring us on from that. And having spent no time in LA at all, we went straight for the desert.

Desert #2. Mexican restaurant, Twentynine Palms

Desert #2. Mexican restaurant, Twentynine Palms

Desert #3. Freight train

Desert #3. Freight train

Desert #4. Restroom Stallion, Amboy

Desert #4. Restroom Stallion, Amboy

“I can’t for the life of me understand what appeal the desert holds with you guys,” said a casino employee in Nevada. I don’t know exactly what group of people he was referring to with “you guys,” except that I somehow belonged to it. Then again, I can’t for the life of me understand what appeal a casino holds with anyone either, so I guess we were on much the same level in our not understanding each other. Well, each to his own. Some prefer
air-conditioned slot machines. I prefer a lonely heatstroke.* A breakfast cook in California thought she had an explanation for this: “It’s the topography,” she said. Whether she meant the actual topography of the desert, or the mental topography of the Nordic traveller, I am not entirely sure, but I suspect it was a bit of both. She was the sort of breakfast cook that had a special understanding of those things.

Desert #5

Desert #5

Desert #6. Et cetera

Desert #6. Et cetera

Desert #7. Scrap yard guards

Desert #7. Scrap yard guards

Desert #8

Desert #8

Desert #9, #10

Desert #9, #10

Desert #11

Desert #11

Desert #12

Desert #12

Desert #13. Return on $20

Desert #13. Return on $20

Desert #14

Desert #14

Desert #15. Travel office

Desert #15. Travel office

Desert #16. Food! Quoth the raven

Desert #16. Food! Quoth the raven

Desert #17

Desert #17

Desert #18. Devil's Golf Course / End of the road

Desert #18. Devil’s Golf Course / End of the road

* Not really.

At Fjord’s End

Beyond the picture perfect beauty of Hardanger, the backside of the postcard is even more alluring.

Odda #1. The zink smelting plant

Odda #1. The zink smelting plant

The hotel director. Ole Melkeraaen

The hotel manager. Ole Melkeraaen

The sound of Hardanger is very much the a cappella vocal approval of the visiting tourists, going “ooh” and “aah” and “sehr schön” and “ain’t that just lovely.” With hillsides clad in apple blossoms and snow-capped mountains diving into the blue-green waters of the fjord, Hardanger is the epitome of Norwegian romantic nationalism. I once took an English writer for a week long trip around these fjords in my old Ford Fiesta. That trip ended up as a nine page story in KLM’s inflight magazine – under the headline “Fjord Fiesta.” I’ve worked with other seasoned travel writers producing travel stories from this region as well, and more than once have heard them say: “I thought I was blasé, but this..!”

But this. This – as in the picture perfect postcard Hardanger – only exist between May and September. There are other sides to Hardanger as well. There is an end of the fjord. And Sørfjorden – the Southern Fjord – infamously known as the fjord that God forgot – ends in Odda.

Odda #2. By night

Odda #2. By night

The Johnny Cash of Utne. Øyvind Terjesen

The Johnny Cash of Utne. Øyvind Terjesen

Here, in this small industrial town built around a smelting plant now closed, two friends since childhood have spent most of the day in the kitchen. One of them – the hotel manager – is just off night watch and has chosen cooking over sleep. The other put on the roast even before going to bed from the party the night before (drunk slow roast – now that’s lovely). The table is set with white linens and the best dining wares. Several bottles of Amarone are breathing nicely, the fish soup starter has been simmering for hours and all is ready for one hell of a nice dinner. Oh, and I’m invited. Only that I don’t know. Not that it’s supposed to be a secret in any way, but my friend and colleague – the director of the fjordside mischief TV-series “Fjorden Cowboys” – just sort of forgot to mention it.

So there you have it. A short hour prior to the best meal I’ll have in quite a while, I’m sitting at a roadside tavern – under a confederate flag, no less – eating a roadside hamburger and spoiling my appetite. This shouldn’t come as a surprise to me. After all, the reason why I’m in Odda this March weekend, is to embrace the sudden and make a series of portraits based on chance meetings. I started the day talking to a guy feeding birds along the wharf. His name was Sigfred.

Feeding birds. Sigfred

Feeding birds. Sigfred

– So, Sigfred, how do you spend your days?
– From three minutes past two till five o’clock I listen to the radio. Other than that I feed the ducks.

Simple as that. Yet not simple at all. Sigfred told me he used to work at the zink plant, that’s the other giant smelting plant in the small town of Odda. And this goes for most of the people I meet this weekend. Most all of them are in some way connected to either the industry, the agriculture or both. Odda – the smelting plant town – and the fjords are in themselves a melting pot of both old farm culture and industrial identity, my friend Hildegunn Wærness tells me. And this blend of cultures has created some very tough and strong willed men and women – some of whom Hildegunn decided would make for great TV.

The result – the hit TV show “Fjorden Cowboys” – explores and celebrates Norwegian macho culture through the exploits of two entrepreneuring buddies who wear hats, love dynamite, talk trash and drink hard cider straight from the jerry can.

The cowboys. Leif Einar Lothe and Joar Førde enjoying cigarettes and dynamite

The cowboys. Leif Einar Lothe and Joar Førde enjoying cigarettes and dynamite

Last summer, I took a commision from the TV channel who was to air this show, to produce a set of promotional photos. This turned out to be one of the most fun jobs I did through all of 2013, but I was also left with a feeling that there were way more interesting people this end of the fjord than just the two main characters and their entourage.

Nightlife. Øyvind Paulsen (at left), Svein Takla and Marianne Solheim

Nightlife. Øyvind Paulsen (at left), Svein Takla and Marianne Solheim

Pool hall boys. Mohammed Abdinasir Salen (at left), Shakir Adan Mohammed and Mowlid Mohammed

Pool hall boys. Mohammed Abdinasir Salen (at left), Shakir Adan Mohammed and Mowlid Mohammed

The Rocker. Anne Spilde

The Rocker. Anne Spilde

For over half a year I had this urge to go back and make a portrait series from Odda and Sørfjorden, to explore the landscape beyond the picture perfect postcard. To meet with people that might have chosen to live a life slightly deviating from the norm of conformity – and make no mistake – I do mean that as a compliment.

The ferry

The ferry

The blues musician. Bill Booth

The blues musician. Bill Booth

The bartender. André Kabaya

The bartender. André Kabaya

So there we were – the director and me – on an adventure in the dark winter fjords – hoping to meet interesting people, to photograph them and maybe enjoy a drink in their company. And that we surely did. To such an extent that one of us incidentally failed to mention to the other that we had a dinner invitation.

For that I was mad for about five minutes. Then I remembered a quote from one of my favourite authors, Kurt Vonnegut: “Curious travel suggestions are dancing lessons from God.” Not that I’m religious, even less than the man with the guitar who earlier that day had sung to us: “I’m not religious – but I believe when I have to” – but as a reminder to embrace the sudden and unexpected, these words of Vonnegut are themselves good travel companions.

So off to dinner we went, me not quite as hungry as I would’ve liked to be, still expecting it to be brilliant. It was.

Strangely, drunkenly, Twin Peaks-ishly brilliant. Just as the end of the fjord itself.

Tavern staff. Hans Martin Bleie and Halldor Kråkevik

Tavern staff. Hans Martin Bleie and Halldor Kråkevik

Closed Views

These are views both plain and magnificent of alleys and courtyards, city streets and suburban wasteland, mountains and oceans and nothing in particular, hidden behind what I call curtains and you call drapes.

The Parkway Hotel, St. Louis, Missouri

The Parkway Hotel, St. Louis, Missouri

We spent a month on US roads, driving 7.000 kilometres through 18 states. Before leaving Norway back in June, I was adamant that I would produce one series of photographs, besides all the other pictures I took along the way, that would span the entire journey, while at the same time adhering to a set of limitations. Having never before been to the States, I still had this almost romantic fascination for motels of the cheaper variety. For a long time I thought about doing a series of motel exteriors. But we weren’t staying in cheap motels exclusively, some hotels were, well, not exactly fancy, but they wouldn’t lend themselves to such a series very well. And one of my self-imposed limitations – decided upon before even deciding the subject matter – was that I would be photographing all instances of whatever I finally chose, i.e. the façade of every place where we spent the night, in case I went for that idea. So I didn’t.

Hotel 91, New York, New York

Hotel 91, New York, New York

Instead I started thinking about doing it the other way around, photographing from the inside and out, shooting out the windows of whichever place we were staying at. But shooting through the windows didn’t work consistently either, for a variety of reasons. And going outside to photograph basically the same view meant losing the window frame as a frame of reference. Not to mention the trouble I’d have when the room was on the eighth floor. So I elected to stay inside. And closed the curtains.

Knights Inn, Niagara, Ontario

Knights Inn, Niagara, Ontario

Throughout the journey I would thus shoot the curtain of every room we stayed the night in, from shitty Super8 motels and cheap Howard Johnsons to upmarket hotels in Chicago and charming B & Bs in Louisiana. So much did I obsess with the damn curtains that we at one point accidentally tried to check into a curtain store in Boone, NC.

Well, here are the curtains. What’s outside is pretty much left to your imagination.

Super8, Sarnia, Ontario

Super8, Sarnia, Ontario

Howard Johnson, Battle Creek, Michigan

Howard Johnson, Battle Creek, Michigan

The Tremont, Chicago, Illinois

The Tremont, Chicago, Illinois

Hampton Inn, Memphis, Tennessee

Hampton Inn, Memphis, Tennessee

Super8, North Jackson, Mississippi

Super8, North Jackson, Mississippi

Old Town Inn, New Orleans, Louisiana

Old Town Inn, New Orleans, Louisiana

Econo Lodge, Tallahassee, Florida

Econo Lodge, Tallahassee, Florida

Days Inn, Chattanooga, Tennessee

Days Inn, Chattanooga, Tennessee

Smoky Mountain Inn & Suites, Cherokee, North Carolina

Smoky Mountain Inn & Suites, Cherokee, North Carolina

Downtown Inn & Suites, Asheville, North Carolina

Downtown Inn & Suites, Asheville, North Carolina

Fairfield Inn, Boone, North Carolina

Fairfield Inn, Boone, North Carolina

Travelodge Bay Beach, Virginia Beach, Virginia

Travelodge Bay Beach, Virginia Beach, Virginia

Capitol Skyline Hotel, Washington DC

Capitol Skyline Hotel, Washington DC

Courtyard Marriott, New Haven, Connecticut

Courtyard Marriott, New Haven, Connecticut

Fairfield Inn & Suites, New York, New York

Fairfield Inn & Suites, New York, New York

Suggested soundtrack: Low – The Curtain Hits The Cast. And remember: a curtain is just a superhero cape that has yet to fulfill its potential.

This is the tenth and final chapter of the American blog posts. Links to the other installments below.

America part nine: DC, Then Dave
America part eight: There Died A Myriad
America part seven point five: Beach And Moan
America  part seven: Mountains (woo-hoo!)
America part six: The Place Where They Cried*
America part five: The Heroes of Gator-Aid
America part four: Some People. And Chicago
America part three: A Tale Of Three Cities
America part two: Viva Las Canada
America part one: New York Fact Sheet

DC, Then Dave

DC / Cherokee / New York / Chattanooga: The penultimate blog post on the American journey in which the author-traveller does a National Mall stroll and reveals his dismal view on the future for an unlucky surveyor in NYC.

DC #1

DC #1

DC #2

DC #2

– To the White House, please.
– You got an appointment with President Obama, asks Mr. Abdul Khan, our friendly taxi driver.
– Yes, we’re his nine o’clock.
– Haha – you know I drove Obama once, back when he was a senator.
– Oh really? Was he a nice passenger?
– No, man, he paid the right money – right on the meter!

DC #3

DC #3

DC #4

DC #4

So there you have it. The President is a bad tipper. Also, the White House is way smaller than I imagined. Other than that, DC feels extremely familiar to someone who’s never been there before. Okay, the White House isn’t a marble fortress prone to exploding in the beginning of the third act, the Lincoln memorial statue doesn’t rise from his stone throne to run for re-election and the Washington monument (probably) isn’t a camouflaged above-ground missile silo – but other than that the capital handles the transition from pop culture to real life reasonably well.

DC #5

DC #5

DC #6

DC #6

PS – Disillusioning Dave

At some point during our travel I think I said jokingly that the US is a big and friendly country that is fond of melted cheese, Jesus and fireworks, in that order. We certainly had our shares of cheese and massive displays of fireworks, but were actually spared any real run-ins with folks preaching the gospel in our general direction. Yes, somewhere in the Midwest we did see a series of billboards proclaiming that adherence to the theory of evolution led to eternal damnation, but that’s so off the charts that it ain’t offensive in the slightest. Actually I think the 20-something hipsters folding hands for a mealtime prayer in a fancy NYC place is almost more shocking to my irreligious Northern European sensibilities. Anyway, my point is that no one had tried to proselytize me or even engage me in a religious conversation. Not until the very last day.

Enter Dave.

It’s the morning of our last day in the US. I’m having breakfast in Bryant Park in Midtown Manhattan and have already had some more or less meaningful conversations with strangers on topics ranging from cilantro to organ donation, when a new guy approaches. He introduces himself as Dave and tells me that he is from some sort of ministry but seems like a nice enough fellow.

Ford Saviour

Ford Saviour

Dave: – We have some questions that we ask visitors here in Bryant Park – would you mind if we spoke for a few minutes?
Me: – Sure, I don’t mind.
Dave: – How do you think it all began?
Me: – Life, you mean? It originated from a beautiful bio-chemical coincidence – then evolved through a process of natural selection.
Dave: – Oh.
Me: – I gather you and I have quite different opinions on this?
Dave: – Yes. But that’s okay. Let’s continue. What do you believe went wrong for us humans?
Me: – Oh, that’s easy. Our single measure of success is progress, but you can’t have unlimited growth based on a system of limited resources. At the same time we lack the cognitive ability of thinking and planning long-term. Our brains are wired just the same way as when fight or flight were the only decisions of importance, making it very hard for us to actually fathom the consequences of problems such as overpopulation and climate change.
Dave: – Hmm. Is there any hope?
Me: – No, I don’t think so.
Dave: – So how will it end?
Me: – Horribly.

Ah yes. That was Dave’s encounter with the smiling happy and dreadfully pessimistic Norwegians in Bryant Park. And actually also my last really memorable interaction with anyone in the States. Well except for the staff of five at the Irish pub in Newark Airport, who deemed the question of whether or not Vin Diesel is gay as far more important than me having a steady supply of Guinness.

Until next time, America. We will reunite

Until next time, America. We will reunite

This is America part nine. Read also

America part eight  
America part seven point five
America  part seven  
America part six  
America part five  
America part four  
America part three  
America part two  
America part one 

Beach And Moan

A long day of zombie literature at the beach takes its toll.

Virginia Beach #01. Catching crabs in Chesapeake Bay

Virginia Beach #01. Catching crabs in Chesapeake Bay

The last time my thighs saw proper sunlight was a December morning in 2010, on my first day off after covering the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancun, Mexico. I was only supposed to take a morning stroll along the beach, then I happened to accidentally swim in the Caribbean Sea, drink beer and watch pelicans for six hours.

Virginia Beach #02. Fishing for croakers

Virginia Beach #02. Fishing for croakers

Yesterday I stumbled upon a beach yet again. Supposedly the longest pleasure beach in the world, our arrival at Virginia Beach’s oceanfront was not really that accidental. And for once we also decided to forgo all of downtown’s delights and just have a day at the beach. This allowed me to catch up on some zombie survivalist literature.

Speaking of World War Z – In a breakfast room.some hundred motels ago, I met a ten-year old kid who was really concerned about post-zombie-apocalypse-gun-legislation: “The government can’t ban guns if there’s ever a zombie apocalypse, can they?” he kept asking his dad. His dad mumbled something incoherent while trying to get the waffle iron to work. But the kid, I’m sure, will grow up to be a fine and vigilant gun crazed paramilitary buff.

Of course – when the zombie holocaust really hits us, it’s not the zombies themselves that will kill most of us. No, most people will die from the lack of clean water supply, from dehydration from all the running. Yep, it’s the little things that will get us. Like forgetting to apply sunscreen to your legs.

Seems my thighs didn't do the transition from the gentleman's long trousers to shorter swim shorts quite as well as I had hoped.

Seems my thighs didn’t do the transition from the gentleman’s long trousers to shorter swim shorts quite as well as I had hoped.

This is America part seven point five. Read part seven here, part six here, part five here, part four here, part three here, part two here, part one here.

Mountains (woo-hoo!)

Enough flatlands. Enough dead armadillos. Mountain-time.

Mountains #1

Mountains #1

Unknown, unknown, skunk, possum, skunk, unknown, dog, raccoon, unknown, deer, fox, unknown, armadillo, skunk, deer, unknown, dog, unknown, armadillo, raccoon, armadillo, unknown, armadillo, armadillo, armadillo, armadillo, unknown, armadillo, armadillo, unknown, unknown, deer, raccoon, armadillo, armadillo, armadillo, armadillo, armadillo, armadillo.

Those were roadkill, and about the only things besides asphalt, cars, billboards and endless fields of flat boredom that you see when driving south on the Interstate through the Midwest.

Enough of that, we said, and set course for the Great Smoky Mountains and the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Mountains #2

Mountains #2

Mountains #3

Mountains #3

Mountains #4

Mountains #4

Mountains #5

Mountains #5

Mountains #6

Mountains #6

Mountains #7

Mountains #7

Mountains #8

Mountains #8

This is America part seven. Read part six here, part five here, part four here, part three here, part two here, part one here.

The Place Where They Cried*

Cherokee, NC: damn sad.

Cherokee #1

Cherokee #1

The town of Cherokee and the areas of Western North Carolina has been part of the homelands of the Cherokee people for centuries upon centuries. And yes – you still see clear signs of Indian presence in the town, even though most of the Cherokees in the 1830s were gathered, dispossessed and made to walk six months, 1,200 miles west, killing roughly one in four.

Cherokee #2

Cherokee #2

Depending on from which road you enter downtown Cherokee, the first thing you see is either a small stage with a scruffy looking bison and a sign promising Live Indian Shows, a 20 foot Cherokee statue advertising Indian Tattoos – or the Indian casino.

Cherokee #3

Cherokee #3

Despite my anti-gambling sensibilities, I suspect the casino might be one of the better thing to have happened to this town, in that tribal gambling at least generates a stream of revenue for tribe members. As of 2005, each member of the 13,000+ strong tribe received $8,000 from casino profits. Compared to the times before the casino opened in 1995, when most tribe members were poor, almost totally dependent on the federal government for subsistence,” the opening of the casino meant dramatic improvements in everything from jobs to education to health care for the tribe, according to then chief Joyce Dugan.

Cherokee #4

Cherokee #4

But for the rest of the town… Its current motto is “Trails of Legends and Adventures” – how about changing that to “Cringeworthy?”

Well, at least judging by its main street.

Cherokee #5

Cherokee #5

There is a museum, as well as a reconstructed Indian village, that might very well be decent and respectful attractions, but they weren’t open when I passed through town so I wouldn’t know. There is also a historic play on the story of the Cherokee Indians that’s been running daily for over 60 years, so obviously that’s got something going for itself.

Cherokee #6

Cherokee #6

But ah, yes, the main street. Here, tribal pride is a commodity, a photo-op, a souvenir – all in the most tasteless of manners. A sign saying “Dance show by a full blooded?” That is so very, very wrong. No disrespect to the tribal members who for whatever reason feel compelled to partake in this, but this has to make more people than me feel uncomfortable.

There are also the bear pens.

Cherokee #7

Cherokee #7

* The Place Where They Cried – Nu na da ul tsun yi – is the Cherokee expression for the events in 1838 in which they were forcibly removed from their lands in the Southeastern United States, resulting in the deaths of approximately 4,000 Cherokees. Today’s Eastern Band members are direct descendents of those who avoided the forced removal.

Cherokee #8

Cherokee #8

This is America part six. Read part five here, part four here, part three here, part two here, part one here.